8.3. Differentials, power shafts / semiaxes
The given Part is devoted the components serving for perception of a twisting moment from карданных of shaft (Kardannye shaft see) and transfers to its driving wheels of forward and back axes of the car.
The design of forward and back differentials is presented on below-mentioned illustrations:
The general information
The back bridge of the car has гипоидную a design of the semiunloaded type (the axis of a leading gear wheel passes below an axis of a conducted gear wheel of the main transfer). During fulfilment of turns the differential provides to an external wheel rotation possibility with greater speed, than speed of rotation of an internal wheel. The internal ends of semiaxes are equipped шлицами, entering into gearing with шлицами naves of lateral gear wheels of differential, hence, during fulfilment of turns internal (on turn radius) the lateral gear wheel also rotates more slowly the external. Planetary assemblage thus starts to rotate in a differential box. The differential is placed in the cast case which equipped with a stamped cover and have received the name of the holder. Steel pipes of semiaxes запрессованы in the holder also are scalded.
On some models the back bridge is equipped by the blocked differential of the limited sliding (LSD). Such differential works in a mode of usual planetary assemblage until one of wheels does not start to revolve. The assemblage structure includes pair conic муфт, slowing down rotation of a box of differential in a similar situation. The taking place difference of angular speeds of rotation of wheels leads to loading increase on satellites of planetary assemblage which through jointed with a semiaxis conic муфту is transferred on being in gearing with a road covering a wheel.
Forward suspension bracket completely the independent. The bridge is formed by assemblage of differential and pair the power shafts equipped from both ends with hinges of equal angular speeds (SHRUS). The SHRUS are placed in rubber protective covers. Internal the SHRUS приболчены to equipped шлицами to the sliding flanges entering into gearing with lateral gear wheels of differential of forward main transfer, external are fixed on a pin of a shaft by means of lock rings.
Frequently suspicions on failure of components of one of bridges appear unreasonable, and a source of occurrence of taking place symptoms lies in infringement of serviceability of functioning of absolutely other components of the car. Try to estimate with all attentiveness a situation, serially excepting all possible causes of a failure.
Occurrence listed below characteristic extraneous sounds often wrongly associates with infringement of serviceability of functioning of a drive of wheels:
- The noise caused by a friction of a protector about a surface of a road covering. Compare the noise background arising at movement on roads with a different covering. Besides, road noise does not vary at movement on transfer and накатом;
- The noise published at work of the engine and transmission are well spent by components finding in gearing with these units трансмиссионной lines. Try to remember engine turns at which noise reach the maximum intensity, then park the car, translate transmission in neutral position and disperse the engine to the same turns, — if sounds renew, hence, the drive of wheels has no relation to their occurrence.
In view of necessity of application of special tools, performance of regenerative repair of differential will charge more correctly to experts of car-care centre. In below-mentioned sections of the present Chapter descriptions of procedures of removal and installation of semiaxes / of power shafts, replacements of epiploons of differential, replacement of bearings and dismantle of all assemblage of a drive of wheels for the purpose of performance of its regenerative repair or replacement are resulted.
At replacement of assemblage of the back bridge it is necessary to use the information containing in an identification code, beaten out with the forward party of the right section картера assemblages. On a code the safe load on the bridge, differential type, date and a place of manufacturing of assemblage is defined.
Design of forward differential
Design of 2-satellite back differential
Design of 4-satellite back differential
Design of differential of the limited sliding (LSD)