2.5.6. Transportation of cargoes, trailer towage
The car is equipped by the several capacities intended for placing of transported subjects.
The ware branches located in salon of the car are intended for placing of small subjects. Their number concern the main ware box in panels of devices, door pockets and the pockets located in backs of seats, and also the ware box which has been built in the central console (the car Equipment, an arrangement of devices and controls see).
Large-sized subjects should be placed in a luggage space, or on a car roof (the car Equipment, an arrangement of devices and controls see). Transportation of lengthy subjects becomes possible thanks to a collapsible design of backs of a back seat (Elements of systems of safety see).
It is necessary to remember, however, that wrong placing of cargo can negatively affect controllability and stability of the car and, hence, to lower safety. Before transporting this or that cargo in the car, familiarise with the information resulted more low.
Transportation of cargoes in the car
The maximum load-carrying capacity of the car
Excess of the maximum admissible load-carrying capacity of the car or wrong placing of cargo in can become the reason of road and transport incident and lead травмированию and even to death being in salon of the car of the driver or passengers. Do not exceed the maximum admissible value of weight gross at car loading, and also other restrictions mentioned in the present Management.
By transportation cargoes in the car it is necessary to consider that the full weight of the car should not exceed the maximum admissible value. The full weight of the car includes: the equipped weight of the car, weight of the driver and passengers, weight of the hook-on device established on the car, and also weight of the trailer having on it. At any variants of loading of the car of loading on an axis also should not exceed limiting admissible values. The information on the maximum admissible values of full weight and axial loadings is resulted on the certified label fixed on a rack of a driver's door (the Maintenance instruction see).
Transportation of cargoes in car salon
Reliably fix all placed in salon of the car subjects, in order to avoid their displacement in case of road and transport incident.
Be convinced of that the subjects laid on a floor behind forward seats, cannot be rolled forward and under no circumstances are not capable to prevent to manipulate freely to the driver management pedals, and also cannot break correctness of adjustment of position of forward seats.
Hold ware boxes during movement by the closed.
Transportation of cargoes in a luggage space or on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car
Try to distribute cargo in regular intervals, placing it probably is closer to seats. Heavy subjects always should be stacked from below, on a luggage space floor. Reliably fix transported cargo a strong cord. Never stack luggage above level of backs of seats.
By transportation large-sized or lengthy subjects at the combined back seats, try to fix reliably their strong cord to prevent displacement of cargo during emergency braking of the car. Do not stack luggage above level of backs of seats in order to avoid reduction of sector of the review to the driver.
In need of transportation of the lengthy subjects, not allowing to close a back / door back glass, remember that the fulfilled gases of the engine can get to car salon, — carry out corresponding safety measures (Elements of systems of safety see).
At cargo placing on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car, track, that the cumulative weight of luggage did not exceed admissible value (the car Equipment, an arrangement of devices and controls see). For reception of more detailed information address on company Infiniti car repair shop.
The general information
Wrong placing of luggage, and also transportation of too heavy cargoes on the car or the towed trailer can worsen considerably controllability and brake properties of transport means / of the lorry convoy that is fraught with emergency creation on roads. Before a start of motion always attentively check correctness of loading of the car and the trailer.
The scheme of distribution of loadings at trailer towage
The explanatory by calculation of full weight of the car
Models of cars considered in the present Management first of all are, of course, passenger and are intended for transportation of people and their luggage. However, at obligatory observance of some the general rules which are resulted more low, cars Infiniti can be used also with success for trailer towage.
The maximum vertical loading on the hook-on device of the car at full weight of the trailer should not exceed 227 кГс. It is necessary to adhere to a following rule: vertical loading on the hook-on device should make approximately 9—10 % from full weight of the trailer (the Scheme of distribution of loadings see an illustration at trailer towage). For example, if the full weight of the trailer with cargo is equal 225 kg, vertical loading on the hook-on device should make nearby 22.5 кГс. Adjust loading on a car turnbuckle, in appropriate way placing cargo on the trailer. To begin with it is recommended to place cargo so that approximately 60 % of its weight were ahead of a trailer axis, and 40 % — behind. If the full weight of the trailer exceeds 500 kg, try to distribute cargo on length of the trailer in regular more intervals. Never load the trailer so that the back part of the trailer outweighed a lobby, is leads to unloading of back wheels of the car that worsens coupling of tyres with a road covering.
At full weight over 454 kg the trailer should be equipped by the brake mechanism.
Full weights of the car and the towed trailer should not exceed corresponding maximum admissible values.
The full weight of the car includes: the equipped weight of the car, weight of the driver, passengers and luggage, weight of the hook-on device and weight of the trailer having on it. Remember that the weight of the additional equipment established on the car and the weight of the trailer having on a turnbuckle (at trailer towage), reduce useful load-carrying capacity of a vehicle (the Explanatory by calculation of full weight of the car see an illustration) by corresponding sizes.
The most reliable way of check of correctness of loading of the car and the trailer is weighing. Load the car and the trailer how they are usually maintained as a part of the lorry convoy, and weigh them on cargo scales. Define values of full weights of the car and the trailer, and also the weights having on an axis of the car and the trailer. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications (the Maintenance instruction see).
The hook-on device
Installation of the hook-on devices which are not corresponding on the standard sizes массогабаритным to characteristics of the trailer, or incorrectly established on the car, can become the damage reason кузовных vehicle elements.
The design of the hook-on device intended for installation on the car should satisfy completely to all corresponding technical requirements, — in case of need consult on company Infiniti car repair shop.
The hook-on device should fasten in the several specially provided points on the basis of a car body that loadings from the towed trailer were distributed in regular more intervals and had on elements of strengthening of a body. It is forbidden to mount the hook-on devices leaning only on a back bumper which is not intended for perception of similar loadings on the car. Turnbuckle installation should be made car-care centre qualified personnel.
Towage of the large-sized trailer (type "Caravan") usually demands installation on the car of additional rear-view mirrors with the extended arms. Specify requirements of the local legislation and the traffic Rules, concerning towages of trailers by cars. Attach the trailer to the car and estimate degree of deterioration of the back review through standard rear-view mirrors. If the review unsatisfactory from safety reasons it is necessary to equip the special mirrors, providing to the driver the adequate review of space behind the car.
Joining of the trailer to the car
At acquisition of the trailer equipped with brake mechanisms, be convinced that they have an electric drive of management, — the design of a hydraulic drive of working brake system of your car does not provide connection possibility to it of any additional contours, in particular, for actuating of brake mechanisms of the trailer. Any way of joining to a brake hydrodrive of the car of brake system of the trailer, what attractive it would not seem, will lead to deterioration of efficiency of braking of the car and traffic safety decrease.
Attaching the trailer to the car, always use a safety chain. The ends of a safety chain should be reliably fixed to corresponding places on дышле the trailer and on the hook-on device of the car. Track, that the chain passed under дышлом the trailer, is will prevent falling of the forward end дышла on road to a case рассоединения сцепки. The free length of a chain should be sufficient not to disturb to fulfilment of turns of the lorry convoy with the minimum radiuses, however, it is not necessary to suppose chain drawings by the ground.
Devices of external illumination and the alarm system on the trailer
As on trailers of various marks the various lining of electroconducting can be used, it is necessary to charge the turnbuckle equipment to experts of car-care centre. In certain cases installation of a transitive nozzle (adapter) can be demanded.
Before connecting a trailer electric equipment to the car electric system, necessarily consult on a car repair shop.
Preparation for trailer towage
- Before a start of motion it is necessary to make control survey and car and trailer check.
- Measure the vertical loading having on the hook-on device, — take advantage of usual floor scales.
- Check up reliability of fastening дышла the trailer and a safety chain.
- Check up a technical condition of tyres and pressure of air in tyres on the car and the trailer. The lowered pressure of air in tyres considerably worsens controllability of the car and the lorry convoy. At the same time check a condition and pressure of air in a spare wheel.
- Completely having loaded and having attached the trailer to the car, make sure of absence excessive «проседания» a back part of the car, — in case of need cargo in the car / the trailer.
- Check up serviceability of functioning of devices of external illumination and the alarm system on the car and the trailer.
- Specify operating restrictions ПДД on the maximum speed of movement of the lorry convoy as a part of the car and the trailer. Planning to make a trip on the several countries, in advance familiarise with features of local requirements and the restrictions, concerning towages of the trailer by the car as in each country the restrictions can operate.
In the European countries restriction of speed of movement of the lorry convoy as a part of the car and the trailer is established at level of 100 km/h.
Security measures at trailer towage
It is necessary to consider that the brake way of the car towing the trailer, increases. Therefore, moving with the trailer, you should support the increased distance to ahead going car. Try to avoid sharp braking and turns. It can lead to folding of the lorry convoy or even переворачиванию the trailer.
Remember that the length of the lorry convoy considerably exceeds length of the single car. At turn to the right leave between edge of a carriageway and wheels of the right board of the car considerably большее distance, than usually to avoid arrival by trailer wheels on a border. Consider that at turn of the lorry convoy the trailer moves on an arch of smaller radius, than the car, and can drive or face an obstacle which the car freely passed. At overtaking of other vehicle do not hurry up to come back in the number as it can lead to collision of the overtaken car with the trailer.
The lorry convoy, in comparison with the single car, is more sensitive to action of impulses of a lateral wind and aerodynamic indignations from other cars. If you are overtaken at great speed by the heavy truck or the lorry convoy, try to support rectilinear and uniform movement of the car. To reduce the aerodynamic indignations operating on the lorry convoy from ahead going car, lower speed to leave a turbulent stream.
At towage of the trailer loading increases by all basic units and car systems. Therefore at frequent use of the car for trailer towage it is necessary to spend periodic maintenance service of the car according to regulations, characteristic for intense service conditions (Routine maintenance see the Head).
Additional loading on the car even more increases at lorry convoy operation in hilly district. At overcoming of long liftings watch closely a temperature mode of the engine on стрелочному to the index on a control panel. At approach of an arrow of the index to an overheat zone, switch off air conditioner (if it is equipped and included) and continue movement. If the temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine does not decrease, or continues to raise, stop on a roadside of road and allow to the engine to cool down.
Air conditioner should be switched off also at prompt increase in speed at descent at movement in hilly or a hilly terrain. If the temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine constantly raises at movement on the second transfer, lower speed of movement below a mark of 60 km/h.
At movement in hilly or a hilly terrain cyclic switching of the third and fourth transfers of automatic transmission can be observed. In this case it is necessary to pass in the lowered range «3» that will prevent an overheat and excessive deterioration of details of frictional elements АТ. In order to avoid an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents use braking by the engine. For effective braking by the engine include the lowered range or one of the lowest steps of an automatic transmission.
At a lorry convoy stop on lifting do not keep it on a place by pressing педели gas, is can lead to overheat АТ. Use working brake system, or a lay brake.
At management of automatic transmission in a manual mode use the third, second and first transfers, being conformed to speed of movement of the car and road conditions. Towing the trailer, do not include the fourth transfer. In Specifications recommended high-speed ranges for use of various steps of a transmission (the Maintenance instruction see) are resulted.
At a lorry convoy parking on long parking, especially on descent or lifting, accept all safety measures for reliable braking of the car and the trailer. Turn forward wheels of the car so that at скатывании lorry convoys they have rested in бордюрный a stone. Completely cock a lay brake and translate the lever of the selector of ranges in position «Р» (track that the distributing box was not in neutral position — car Parking see). On equipped Manual transmission models include the first, or a reverse gear. In addition enclose under both wheels of the trailer противооткатные boots.
Management of the lorry convoy at movement by a backing presents certain difficulties and demands from the driver of special skills and training. Move a backing cautiously and slowly, do not rotate unduly quickly a steering wheel. At maneuvering by a backing in the constrained conditions it is useful, that someone, standing outside, watched movings of the trailer and directed your actions. Keep in mind that at steering wheel rotation clockwise (to the right) the trailer moves to the left, and on the contrary. At maneuvering of the lorry convoy by a backing it is recommended to keep for a steering wheel rim from below (instead of from above, as usually, at movement by a forward course). At such successful fellow habitual conformity between a direction of turn of a steering wheel and trailer movement remains: hand displacement to the left leads to trailer turn also to the left and on the contrary.