Service Infiniti QX4 since 1996 of release
1. Introduction
1.1. Cars Infiniti QX4 – the summary
1.2. Identification numbers of the car
1.3. Acquisition of spare parts
1.4. Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
1.5. Automobile химикалии, oils and greasings
1.6. Diagnostics of malfunctions of knots and car systems
2. The maintenance instruction
3. Routine maintenance
4. The engine
5. Cooling and heating systems
6. Power supply systems and managements
7. Start and charge systems
8. A transmissionnaja line
9. Brake system
10. A suspension bracket and a steering
11. A body
12. An electric equipment
 












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1.6. Diagnostics of malfunctions of knots and car systems

The owners of cars who are carrying out procedures of routine maintenance of a vehicle schedule Routine maintenance agrees resulted in the Head will be extremely seldom compelled to address to materials of the given section. Reliability of knots and the components established on modern cars is so high that at timely performance of replacement of the materials of details worn out and failed as a result of ageing the probability of their sudden refusal is smallest. Refusals seldom occur spontaneously and usually are a consequence sometimes of long development of defect. In particular, failure of mechanical components practically always is preceded by occurrence and development of the characteristic symptoms shown at times for many thousand of kilometres of run to the full. The same components which can fail unexpectedly, usually are not vital for functioning of the basic knots and car systems, or are easily replaced in road conditions.

Basic step at revealing of the reasons of any refusal is the choice of a point of the beginning of searches. Often the reason appears lying on a surface, however in certain cases it is necessary to work, making small investigation. The motorist who has made half-dozen casual checks, replacements and corrections quite has to find out a cause of a failure (or its symptom), however such approach in any way it is impossible to name chance reasonable, in view of its labour input and aimlessness of expenses of time and means. There is a quiet logic approach to search of the failed knot or a component much more effectively. Necessarily it is necessary to take into consideration all preceding breakage, sometimes insignificant, symptoms and guarding signals, such as loss of capacity developed by the engine, change of indications of measuring instruments, occurrence of unusual sounds and smells, etc. Do not forget that failure of such components as safety locks or spark plugs can be only a symptom of the more deeply latent infringement.

More low in the given subsection simple enough scheme of diagnostics of most often meeting refusals is resulted. The reasons of infringements and their symptoms are grouped on the basis of the relation to functioning of any concrete unit or system: "Engine", «cooling System» etc. In brackets are given references to corresponding Chapters and the sections of the Management concerning functioning of components suspected of malfunction.

Without dependence by nature refusal in a basis of investigation of its reason identical base principles are always put:

Make sure of correctness of definition of symptoms of refusal. Told means confidence of delimitation of area of searches that is especially important with the help in refusal diagnostics to other motorist who cannot adequately state symptoms of taking place infringement.

Try not to look through obvious infringements. For example, if the engine is not started, do not hesitate to check up fuel presence in a petrol tank (thus it is not necessary to take on trust statements of the owner of the faulty car). In default electric equipments first of all it is necessary to check up a condition and reliability of fastening клеммных electroconducting connections, only after that it makes sense to get diagnostic devices.

Try to eliminate a cause of a failure, instead of its symptom. Replacement of the discharged battery new will help to make the engine start, however the taking place reason of a discharge of the old battery remains not eliminated that will lead to fast failure and new. Also replacement of the spark plugs thrown by oil will allow to restore for some time serviceability of functioning of the engine, however refusal by all means will soon repeat (if the reason lay not simply in application of candles not that type).

Do not take on trust any statements. Remember that "the new" component also can appear faulty, in particular if it long time has lain in a luggage carrier — it is not necessary to exclude a component from the list checked only for the reason that it is new or is recently established. In case of neglect it is not necessary to be surprised with performance of the made recommendation, when the cause of a failure revealed, at last, will appear lying on a surface from the very beginning.


Problem diagnostics and the reasons of decrease in efficiency of return of the engine


The engine is not turned at attempt of its start

  • Polar plugs of the battery, or ослабло fastening on them of tips of wires (Routine maintenance see the Head) are oxidised.
  • The battery is discharged or faulty.
  • АТ it is not translated in position «Р» or «N».
  • It is torn off, or electroconducting of a chain of system of start, or ослабло fastening of plugs of contact connections is otherwise damaged.
  • The privodnaja gear wheel of a starter is jammed in a gear wreath приводного a disk.
  • The traction relay of a starter has failed.
  • The starter electromotor is faulty.
  • The ignition switch is faulty.
  • Teeth приводной gear wheels of a starter or a gear wreath приводного a disk is broken off or worn out.
  • The engine is jammed. Try to turn it manually for a bolt of a pulley of a cranked shaft.


The engine is turned, but not started

  • The fuel tank is empty.
  • The battery (the engine is turned too slowly) is discharged.
  • Polar plugs of the battery, or ослабло fastening on them of tips of wires are oxidised.
  • Passableness of fuel lines is broken, the gasoline pump is faulty, or ventilating branch pipes of a fuel tank are blocked.
  • Components of the distributor of ignition are faulty.
  • Has fallen, or it is non-uniformly distributed between engine cylinders компрессионное pressure.
  • Hydraulic pushers of valves are faulty.
  • Water has got to fuel.
  • The ignition coil is faulty.
  • The injector () injection is faulty.
  • Components of system of ignition are humidified or damaged.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • Electroconducting of a chain of system of start, or ослабло fastening of plugs of contact connections is torn off or is otherwise damaged.
  • As a result of easing of fixture of the distributor installations of a corner of an advancing of ignition are broken.
  • Electroconducting of a chain of system of ignition, ослабло fastening of plugs of contact connections is torn off or is otherwise damaged, or the ignition coil is faulty.
  • Installations of phases timing are broken as a result of deterioration of components of drive ГРМ.
  • It is torn off газораспределительный a belt, or ослабло effort of its tension.


Start of the cold engine is complicated

  • The battery is discharged.
  • Polar plugs of the battery, or ослабло fastening on them of tips of wires are oxidised.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • The system of giving of fuel is faulty.
  • Fuel leaks through an injector () injection take place.
  • Breakdowns бегунка the distributor in the form of coal paths take place.
  • Has fallen компрессионное pressure.


Start of the hot engine is complicated

  • The filtering element of an air cleaner is polluted, or its passableness is otherwise broken.
  • The power supply system (fuel does not arrive in injection injectors) is faulty.
  • Are oxidised клеммные battery connections (especially weight).
  • Quality of grounding of the power unit is broken.
  • Gauge CMP in the ignition distributor is faulty.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of injection or engine management is broken.
  • The system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) is faulty.
  • Has fallen компрессионное pressure.


Starter input in gearing is complicated, or accompanied by extraneous noise

  • Teeth приводной gear wheels of a starter or a gear wreath приводного a disk is broken off or worn out.
  • Ослабли or bolts of fastening of a starter have dropped out.
  • Internal components of a starter are worn out or damaged.


The engine is started, but at once глохнет

  • Electroconducting of a chain of system of ignition, or ослабло fastening of plugs of contact connections on the distributor, the coil of ignition or the generator (see the Head of System of start and a charge) is torn off or is otherwise damaged.
  • Fuel starvation of an injector (ов) injection takes place.
  • Depression losses take place.
  • Installation of turns of idling is broken.
  • Leaks of soaked up air take place, or vacuum lines are damaged.


During a parking under the engine are formed begin to flow oils

  • Leaks through a pallet lining картера, or a drain stopper take place.
  • Takes place leaks through landing consolidation of the gauge of the switch of pressure of oil.
  • Leaks through linings of heads of cylinders take place.
  • Leaks through epiploons of shaft of the engine take place.
  • Leaks in the oil pump take place.


Stability of turns of idling is broken

  • Depression losses take place.
  • The system valve рециркуляции the fulfilled gases (EGR) is faulty.
  • Passableness of valve PCV is broken.
  • The filtering element of an air cleaner is blocked.
  • The gasoline pump does not provide the demanded expense of fuel.
  • Tightness of a lining of a head of cylinders is broken.
  • The belt of drive ГРМ is worn out.
  • Working ledges of cams of a camshaft (ов) are worn out.
  • Hydraulic pushers are faulty.
  • Valves have burnt through, or leaky nestle on saddles.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of ignition is broken.
  • Serviceability of functioning of a thermostatic air cleaner is broken.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • Has fallen, or it is non-uniformly distributed between cylinders компрессионное pressure.
  • Passableness of an injector (ов) injection is broken.
  • Installation of turns of idling is broken.


Ignition admissions on single turns take place

  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • Are faulty ВВ wires of spark plugs.
  • Components of system ignitions (distributor) are humidified or damaged.
  • Short circuit in an ignition chain (the coil or candles) takes place.
  • Components of system of decrease in toxicity are faulty, or their passableness is broken.
  • Passableness of the fuel filter is broken, or fuel is polluted.
  • Depression losses take place.
  • Installations of turns or quality of a mix of idling are broken.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Has fallen, or it is non-uniformly distributed between cylinders компрессионное pressure.
  • Passableness of fuel injectors is broken.


Ignition admissions take place at movement on transfer

  • Passableness of the fuel filter / of a connecting path of the power supply system is broken.
  • Pressure of fuel has fallen.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Треснута the cover of the distributor of ignition, is broken reliability of fastening of contact connections ВВ of wires, or internal defects of the distributor take place.
  • "Breakdown" in ВВ candle wires takes place.
  • Components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases are faulty.
  • Has fallen, or it is non-uniformly distributed between cylinders компрессионное pressure.
  • The ignition system, or ослабли contact connections of its electroconducting is faulty.
  • Depression losses take place.
  • The fuel pump is faulty, or the pressure developed by it has fallen.
  • Ventilation of a fuel tank is broken.


Idling turns are excessively high

  • Smoothness of a course of a drive throttle заслонки is broken.
  • Installation of turns of idling is broken.
  • Leaks in an inlet air path take place.
  • Serviceability of functioning of a control system is broken by the engine.


The battery "does not hold" a charge

  • It is worn out приводной a generator belt, or adjustment of effort of its tension is broken.
  • Polar plugs, or ослабло fastening on them of tips of wires are oxidised.
  • Electrolit level in banks has fallen.
  • The generator does not give out a demanded current of a charge.
  • Electroconducting of a chain of system of a charge, or ослабло fastening of plugs of contact connections is torn off or is otherwise damaged.
  • There is a discharge of the battery owing to short circuit in onboard electroconducting.
  • Internal defect of the battery takes place.


The control lamp of ignition / of a charge continues to burn at the working engine

  • Internal defect of the generator or pressure regulator takes place.
  • It is worn out or torn off приводной a generator belt, or adjustment of effort of its tension is broken.
  • Generator brushes are worn out, jammed or polluted.
  • Ослабли or are broken щеточные generator springs.
  • Electroconducting of a contour of a charge, or ослабло fastening клеммных connections is torn off.


The control lamp of ignition / of a charge does not light up at key turn in position ON

  • Has fused a thread накаливания.
  • The printed-circuit board of a combination of devices, or ламподержатель is faulty.
  • The generator is faulty.


Admissions of ignition take place during movement

  • Passableness of the fuel filter is broken, or fuel is polluted.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Треснута a distributor cover, quality of contact connections ВВ of wires is broken, or internal defect of the distributor of ignition takes place.
  • Candle wires are damaged.
  • Serviceability of functioning of components of system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases is broken.
  • Has fallen, or it is non-uniformly distributed between cylinders компрессионное pressure.
  • The ignition coil is faulty.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of ignition is broken.
  • Depression losses in the inlet pipeline, or through connecting vacuum hoses take place.
  • Passableness of injectors of injection is broken.
  • Leaks in valve EGR take place.
  • Installation of turns of idling is broken.


Stability of turns of the engine is broken during an acceleration

  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of ignition is broken.
  • Passableness of injectors of injection is broken.
  • Pressure of fuel as a result of infringement of serviceability of functioning of a gasoline pump or passableness of fuel lines has fallen.
  • Serviceability of functioning of injectors of injection, or control system of the engine is broken.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • Ослабло socket fastening (ов) injector electroconductings (ов) injection.
  • Passableness of the fuel filter is broken.
  • Air leaks in an inlet path take place.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system EGR is broken.


The engine works as jerks at a pedal of an accelerator kept motionlessly

  • Air leaks in an inlet path take place.
  • The gasoline pump, or regulator of pressure of fuel is faulty.
  • Ослабло socket fastening (ов) injector electroconductings (ов) injection.
  • Infringements of functioning of a control system by the engine take place.


The engine spontaneously глохнет

  • Installation of turns of idling is broken.
  • Passableness of the fuel filter is broken, or the moisture has got to the power supply system.
  • Components of system of ignition (the distributor and ВВ wires) are humidified or damaged.
  • Components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases are faulty.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • Are faulty ВВ wires of spark plugs.
  • Depression losses on the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or through connecting hoses take place.
  • Hydropushers of valves are faulty.
  • The fuel pump is faulty, or the pressure developed by it has fallen.
  • Ventilation of a fuel tank is broken, or gasoline pipe lines are blocked.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of injection or engine management is broken.


Capacity developed by the engine has fallen

  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Takes place excessive люфт a shaft of the distributor of ignition.
  • It is worn out бегунок the distributor, its cover, ВВ candle wires or the ignition coil.
  • Spark plugs are worn out or damaged, or installation of interelectrode backlashes is broken.
  • The system of injection of fuel is faulty.
  • The filtering element of an air cleaner is blocked.
  • Brakes are jammed.
  • Level ATF in АТ has fallen.
  • It is faulty АТ.
  • Passableness of the fuel filter is broken, or the moisture has got to the power supply system.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system EGR is broken.
  • The car is filled by non-standard fuel.
  • Has fallen, or it is non-uniformly distributed between cylinders компрессионное pressure.
  • The system of release of the fulfilled gases is blocked.
  • The fuel pump is faulty, or the pressure developed by it has fallen.
  • Leaks in an inlet air path take place.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of injection or engine management is broken.


There are "shots" in a final path

  • Serviceability of functioning of system EGR is broken.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Serviceability of functioning of the thermostat of an air cleaner is broken.
  • Depression losses take place.
  • Hydropushers of valves are faulty.
  • Are damaged клапанные springs, or has occurred «залипание» valves.
  • Leaks in an inlet air path take place.
  • Malfunction in secondary (ВВ) a contour of system of ignition (candle insulators, ВВ wires, a cover / бегунок the distributor, etc.) takes place.
  • The system of injection of fuel is faulty.


The engine works as jerks at a pedal of an accelerator kept motionlessly

  • Air leaks in an inlet path take place.
  • The gasoline pump is faulty.
  • Ослабло socket fastening (ов) injector electroconductings (ов) injection.
  • Infringements of functioning of a control system by the engine take place.


During an acceleration or at loading increase on the engine there are the knocks caused by too early ignition or a detonation

  • Fuel not that grade is filled.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Takes place excessive нагарообразование in combustion chambers.
  • Non-standard spark plugs are established.
  • The system of injection of fuel is faulty.
  • Are damaged ВВ wires.
  • Distributor components are worn out or damaged.
  • Serviceability of functioning of valve EGR is broken.
  • Depression losses take place.
  • The detonation gauge is faulty.


The engine continues to work after deenergizing ignitions (diesel engine-effect)

  • Leaks in injectors take place.
  • Excessively high turns of idling are exposed.
  • The working temperature of the engine is excessively high.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Takes place excessive нагарообразование on the bottoms of pistons.
  • Occurs «залипание» valves.
  • Hydropushers of valves are faulty.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system EGR is broken.


Pressure drop of impellent oil takes place

  • Oil level has fallen, or oil not that grade is filled.
  • Bearings of the engine and-or the oil pump are worn out.
  • The engine overheat takes place.
  • The oil filter is blocked.
  • Passableness of the mesh filter маслозаборника is broken.
  • Excessively low turns of idling are exposed.
  • There was a short circuit in an electroconducting plait.
  • The measuring instrument of pressure of oil is faulty.


The expense of impellent oil is excessive

  • Ослабла a drain stopper of the pallet картера.
  • Ослабли bolts of fastening of the pallet, or its sealing lining is damaged.
  • Ослабли bolts of fastening of a forward cover, or its sealing lining is damaged.
  • The forward or back epiploon of a cranked shaft is damaged.
  • Ослабли bolts of fastening of a cover of a head of cylinders, or its sealing lining is damaged.
  • Ослабла landing of the oil filter.
  • Ослабло effort of a tightening of the gauge-switch of pressure of oil.
  • Excessive deterioration of pistons or cylinders takes place.
  • Piston rings are worn out or damaged.
  • Are worn out or damaged маслоотражательные caps of inlet and-or final valves.
  • Cores of valves are worn out.
  • Directing plugs of valves are worn out or damaged.


The fuel expense is excessive

  • The filtering element of an air cleaner is polluted or its passableness is otherwise broken.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • Installation of turns of idling is broken.
  • Leaks in a fuel path take place.
  • Passableness of injectors is broken.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of injection of fuel or engine management is broken.
  • Serviceability of functioning of systems of decrease in toxicity is broken.
  • Pressure of a rating of tyres does not suffice, or wheels not that standard size are established.
  • Brakes "are taken".


Fuel leaks (in salon and near to the car clearly smells as gasoline) take place

  • The fuel tank, gasoline pipe lines or them штуцерные connections are damaged mechanically or as a result of corrosion development.
  • The fuel tank is overflowed.
  • The filter of a coal adsorber of system EVAP is blocked.
  • Leaks in system EVAP path take place.
  • Internal components of injectors are damaged or worn excessively out.
  • Serviceability of functioning of system of injection of fuel is broken.


Any noise arising at work of the engine

  • Loud deaf knock, more often arising at an acceleration, specifies in deterioration or damage of radical bearings, or non-uniform deterioration of a cranked shaft.
  • Similar described above, but a little more high-frequency, the sound, also more often arising at an acceleration, speaks about possible deterioration шатунных bearings.
  • The blocked metal knock amplifying at increase of turns of the engine, and weakening in process of warming up of the last testifies excessive deterioration of pistons and walls of cylinders.
  • The frequent clicking which is becoming frequent at an acceleration speaks about deterioration of piston fingers or nests under their landing in pistons (the sound arises at each passage by corresponding piston VMT).
  • The metal clicking published by the water pump, specifies deterioration of bearings and necessity of replacement of the last.
  • The reason of frequent knock or the clicking which is becoming frequent with increase of turns, adjustment infringement клапанных backlashes can be. Hear клапанный to the mechanism by means of a stethoscope/piece of a vacuum hose. If adjustment of valves does not lead to situation correction, it is necessary to check up a condition of hydraulic pushers and other components клапанного the mechanism.

In certain cases knock elimination is helped by refuelling of the engine by oil with higher component of viscosity.

  • The reason of occurrence of uniform metal knock or грохоти, published by drive ГРМ deterioration газораспределительной chains or infringement of adjustment of its tension can be; check up also a condition of asterisks.


Diagnostics of malfunctions of system of cooling


The engine overheat takes place

  • Level of a cooling liquid has fallen.
  • It is damaged приводной a belt or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  • Passableness of a radiator is broken or its lattice is blocked.
  • The water pump is faulty.
  • The thermostat is faulty.
  • Infringement in a chain of the fan of system of cooling takes place.
  • Mechanical damage крыльчатки the fan of system of cooling takes place.
  • Tightness of landing of a cover of a radiator is broken.
  • Installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition is broken.
  • The path of system of cooling is blocked by an air stopper.
  • Impellent oil not that grade is filled.
  • Indications of a measuring instrument of temperature are inexact.


Overcooling takes place

  • The thermostat is faulty.
  • Indications of a measuring instrument of temperature are inexact.
  • Infringement in a chain of the fan of system of cooling takes place.


External leaks of a cooling liquid take place

  • Hoses охладительного a path, or ослабли collars of their fastening are damaged mechanically or destroyed as a result of ageing of a material.
  • Epiploons of the water pump (the cooling liquid will exude through a control aperture) are worn out or damaged.
  • Leaks of a cooling liquid from a radiator or a broad tank take place.
  • Are damaged drain or выжимные stoppers of a water shirt of the block of the engine.
  • Tightness of landing of the gauge-switch of temperature of a cooling liquid is broken.
  • Sealing linings of the block are damaged or cracks in moulding take place.
  • The radiator cover is faulty.
  • There was a boiling up of a cooling liquid as a result of an overheat.


Internal leaks of a cooling liquid take place

Presence of internal leaks proves to be true presence of a cooling liquid at the impellent oil, causing эмульгирование the last.

  • The lining of a head of cylinders is punched.
  • Треснута a head or the block of cylinders.
  • Ослабли bolts of fastening of a head of cylinders.


Losses of a cooling liquid take place

  • In system the excessive quantity of a cooling liquid is filled in.
  • The cooling liquid boils away as a result of an overheat.
  • External or internal leaks of a cooling liquid take place.
  • The radiator cover is faulty.
  • Pressure in cooling system raises at the expense of a compression in cylinders as a result of occurrence of cracks in a head or the block, or infringements of integrity of a sealing lining.


Circulation of a cooling liquid is broken

  • The water pump is faulty. Check up by прощупывания top радиаторного a hose.
  • Passableness охладительного a path is broken.
  • Ослабло a tension of a belt of a drive of the water pump.
  • The thermostat is jammed.
  • Level of a cooling liquid has fallen.


Corrosion development takes place

  • The cooling liquid is excessively polluted. Add in system only the distilled rain water.
  • Antifreeze is excessively diluted.
  • Replacement of a cooling liquid and path washing is insufficiently often made.


Diagnostics of malfunctions АТ

In view of complexity of design АТ to the average mechanic-fan will be inconveniently enough exact to carry out diagnostics of its refusals and regenerative repair. In case of occurrence of the problems which distinct from are listed more low, to the owner the car it is necessary to address for the help to experts of car-care centre. It is not necessary to hasten also with демонтажем faulty transmission as its many checks are made in situ (on a regular place).


Leaks ATF

ATF usually differs dark red colour. It is not necessary to confuse traces of its leaks to those from impellent oil (the last can communicate on картер transmissions by a running stream of air).

For revealing of a source of leak, first of all, it is necessary to clear картер transmissions and surfaces surrounding it of a dirt and greasing. Take advantage qualitative обезжиривателем or execute steam cleaning of the unit. Make on the car a short trip with low speed of movement (that traces of taking place leak did not communicate far from its source). Поддомкратьте the car also establish it on props. Examine картер transmissions, visually revealing sources of leak ATF.

Most often as those act:

  • The pallet картера transmissions: tighten fixture and-or replace a sealing lining;
  • Back lengthening of transmission: tighten fixture and-or replace an epiploon;
  • Jellied mouth: replace a rubber cuff in a place of an input of a mouth in картер transmissions;
  • Ventilating tube: transmission is overflowed and-or in картер water has got;
  • Knot of connection of a speedometer: replace a sealing ring in an input place приводного a cable in картер transmissions.


ATF has brown colour or smells as ashes

  • Level ATF in transmission has fallen, or the liquid has burnt and requires replacement.


There is no automatic switching of transmission on a hill-climbing gear at full squeezing of a pedal of gas

  • Adjustment of a cable of a drive throttle заслонки is broken at mode inclusion kickdown (downshift).


The engine is started in the position of transmission which is distinct from «Р or«N»

  • The gauge-switch of the permission of start is faulty, or its adjustment is broken.


Transmission "comes off" the chosen position, is switched hardly or with noise, or does not provide car progress forward or back

There is a set of the possible reasons of the listed refusals, however one of them gets to sphere of the competence of the average mechanic-fan - infringement of level ATF only. Check up, in case of need make updating of level / liquid and filter replacement, in parallel check up condition ATF. In all other cases the car should be driven away for diagnostics and regenerative repair / of replacement of transmission on a car repair shop.


Diagnostics of malfunctions карданного a shaft


Leaks in a forward part карданного a shaft take place

  • The back epiploon of transmission is damaged or worn out. Check up also a condition of a surface of a sliding plug.


At transfer inclusion (at the moment of loading occurrence) there is a knock

  • Ослабло fastening of components of a back suspension bracket.
  • Ослабли nut bolts / карданного a shaft.
  • Bearings карданного the hinge (ов) are worn out or damaged.
  • The metal gnash conformable to speed of movement of the car takes place
  • Bearings карданного the hinge are worn out (in).


Vibrations take place

First of all check up balancing of wheels and pressure of a rating of tyres.

  • Establish in salon of the car a tachometre and during movement try to define engine turns at which vibration reaches the maximum intensity, then switch transfer and finish turns of the engine to the same value.
  • If vibration arises and reaches the maximum intensity at the same turns of the engine, irrespective of the chosen transfer, its source is NOT propeller a shaft as frequency of its rotation depends on a choice of the transfer relation.
  • If transfer switching leads to disappearance of vibration or appreciable decrease in its intensity (at the same turns of the engine), it is necessary to pass to condition checks карданного вала:.
  • Check up propeller a shaft on presence of signs of a bend and other deformations, in case of need make replacement
  • Carefully clear a shaft. The stuck dirt can be at the bottom of balancing infringement.
  • Estimate degree of deterioration of bearings карданных hinges, in case of need make replacement of assemblages.
  • Check up balancing карданного a shaft or its connecting flange. Make sure of presence on the places balancing грузиков, remove a shaft and establish it, having turned on 180 °. If vibrations do not disappear, give a shaft to balancing.
  • Check up reliability of a tightening of fixing bolts / of nuts.
  • At a corresponding complete set of the car estimate degree of deterioration of the central bearing.
  • Check up a condition of back plugs of transmission.


The scraping sound takes place

  • Make sure that the dustproof cover of a sliding plug does not rub about картер back lengthening of transmission.


Takes place howl or whistle

  • At a corresponding complete set of the car a source of similar sounds the central bearing can be.


Diagnostics of malfunctions of the back bridge and the main transfer


The extraneous noise identical at movement on transfer and накатом takes place

  • Natural road noise.
  • Are worn out, or tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  • Wheel bearings, or ослаб their tightness are worn out or damaged.
  • Oil level in differential has fallen.
  • The differential is faulty.


The knock arising at трогании from a place or at a gear change takes place

  • The differential is faulty, or its adjustment is broken.


Extraneous sounds arise during fulfilment of turns

  • The differential is faulty.


Vibrations take place

  • The subsection devoted to diagnostics of malfunctions карданного of a shaft see. If the shaft is perfectly in order, поддомкратьте a back of the car and establish it on props (the Scheme of an institution of props for car fixing in the lifted position see an illustration) and manually estimate a condition of wheel bearings, in case of need make replacement.


Oil leaks take place

  • The epiploon of a leading gear wheel of the main transfer is damaged.
  • Epiploons of semiaxes are damaged.
  • Ослаб fixture, or the sealing lining of a cover of differential is damaged.
  • Ослабла a drain and-or jellied stopper of differential.
  • Passableness ventilating сапуна differential is broken.


Diagnostics of malfunctions of a distributing box


Gear wheels jump out from gearing

  • The size of a free wheeling of a control lever is broken.
  • The control lever clings to the console.
  • Ослаб the fixture of support of a suspension bracket of a distributing box, or takes place fatigue deformation of a material.
  • Internal components of a distributing box are worn out, or adjustments are broken.


Switching of modes is complicated

  • Oil level has fallen.
  • Internal components of a distributing box are worn out, or adjustments are broken.


Extraneous noise take place

  • Oil level in a distributing box has fallen.
  • Presence of noise at a choice of modes 4Н and 4L and their absence in a mode 2Н speaks about malfunction presence in components of forward differential or a forward axis.
  • Presence of noise at a choice of any of modes speaks about malfunction presence in components of back differential or the back bridge.
  • Presence of noise at a choice of modes 4Н and 2Н and their absence in a mode 4L speaks about presence of malfunction of internal components of a distributing box.


Diagnostics of malfunctions of brake system

Before to come to conclusion about refusal of brake system, check up a condition and pressure of a rating of tyres, uniformity of loading of the car and corners of installation of forward wheels.


At braking course stability of the car is broken

  • Tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  • Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  • On one axis of the car (forward or back) wheels of a different standard size are established.
  • Are worn out, damaged or made oily brake kolodki/boots from one of car boards.
  • Are worn excessively out brake колодки or a disk from one of car boards.
  • Ослаб fixture of components of a forward suspension bracket.
  • It is faulty one or several brake mechanisms.
  • Passableness of brake lines is broken.
  • Ослабли bolts of fastening of a support or a board of the brake mechanism.
  • The piston of a support / of the wheel cylinder of one of brake mechanisms is jammed, or its moving is complicated.
  • From different boards of the car are established brake kolodki/boots with frictional overlays of various type.
  • Components of a steering drive or suspension bracket are worn out or damaged.
  • Adjustment of a pretightness of wheel bearings is broken.


During braking there are extraneous noise (a gnash or high-frequency squeal)

  • Frictional overlays brake колодок forward wheels are worn out — the sound is published by deterioration gauges колодок.
  • Are polluted or заполированы to shine brake колодки.
  • The brake disk / a drum — usually after long parking of the car is damaged by corrosion.
  • Between a disk and a board of the brake mechanism the extraneous subject (for example, a stone) has got.
  • The brake board is deformed.


The course of a brake pedal is excessively great

  • Local infringement in brake system takes place.
  • Level of a hydraulic liquid in tank GTTS has fallen.
  • Air has got to hydraulic system.
  • Serviceability of functioning of automatic regulators of brake mechanisms is broken.
  • The valve-terminator is faulty.
  • It is faulty ГТЦ.
  • The vacuum amplifier of brakes is faulty.


Softness of a course of a brake pedal takes place at its squeezing

  • Air has got to hydraulic system.
  • Flexible brake hoses are damaged as a result of material ageing.
  • Ослаб fixture ГТЦ.
  • It is faulty ГТЦ.
  • Installation of working backlashes brake kolodok/boots is broken.
  • Passableness of a ventilating aperture of a cover of tank GTTS is broken.
  • Rubber brake lines are deformed.
  • Sealing cuffs of supports are softened.
  • The brake liquid requires replacement.


For a car stop applying of excessively big effort to a brake pedal is required

The reasons listed in the previous subsection, plus the following see:

  • The vacuum amplifier of brakes is faulty.
  • Frictional overlays brake kolodok/boots are worn excessively out.
  • The piston () a support / of the wheel cylinder is jammed.
  • Frictional overlays brake kolodok/boots are polluted by oil or greasing.
  • Brake disks are damaged or worn out.
  • It is faulty ГТЦ or a support () / the wheel cylinder ().
  • Are recently established and were not in time to be earned extra new brake kolodki/boots.
  • Local infringement in brake system takes place.


The pedal of a foot brake fails to a floor without resistance

  • Liquid level in tank GTTS has fallen, or leaks through pistons of supports / of wheel cylinders take place.
  • Brake lines, or ослабли them штуцерные connections are damaged.


During braking there are pulsations of a pedal of a foot brake

  • Wheel bearings are worn out or damaged, or adjustment of their pretightness is broken.
  • Components of a support of the brake mechanism are incorrectly established, or between them extraneous subjects have got.
  • Excessive lateral palpation of a brake disk / ovality of a drum takes place.
  • Are worn non-uniformly out brake колодки.


Pulsations of a pedal of a brake take place during sharp braking

  • Consequence of serviceable functioning ABS.


During braking there is a vibration transferred to a brake pedal or a steering wheel

  • Excessive palpation of a brake disk / deformation of a brake drum takes place.
  • Frictional overlays brake kolodok/boots are worn out.
  • Ослабли bolts of fastening of a support / of a brake board.
  • Components of a suspension bracket either steering drive, or support are worn out.


Brakes "are taken" (efficiency of return of the engine is lowered, wheels are excessively warmed up during movement)

  • Adjustment of a target rod of a pedal of a foot brake is broken.
  • Passableness of inlet union GTTS is broken.
  • Piston GTTS is jammed in the cylinder.
  • Are worn excessively out brake kolodki/boots.
  • Cups of pistons in the main brake cylinder, or supports of brake mechanisms are deformed.
  • Adjustment of a lay brake is broken.
  • Adjustment of a pretightness of wheel bearings is broken.
  • Adjustment of adjusting height of a pedal of a foot brake is broken.
  • The wheel cylinder () is jammed.
  • Adjustment of backlashes of landing of boots in drums of brake mechanisms is broken.
  • It is faulty ГТЦ.
  • Passableness of brake lines is broken.


Back wheels are blocked at normal braking

  • Tyres are excessively strongly beefy.
  • Protectors are worn excessively out.


Back wheels are blocked at emergency braking

  • Tyres are excessively strongly beefy.
  • Protectors are worn excessively out.
  • Are polluted by oil колодки brake mechanisms of forward wheels.
  • It is faulty ГТЦ, or assemblage () brake mechanisms.


The lay brake does not keep the car properly

  • Adjustment of a drive of a lay brake is broken.


Diagnostics of malfunctions of a suspension bracket and steering

Before to start checks of components of a suspension bracket and a steering drive make sure that a cause of infringement is not the wrong rating of tyres, installation of tyres of a various standard size, infringement of balancing of wheels, or «прихватывание» brakes.


Course stability of the car is broken

  • On one axis wheels of a various standard size are established, or their tyres are pumped up with various pressure.
  • Defect of tyres takes place.
  • Components of a suspension bracket or steering drive are worn out.
  • Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  • Brake mechanisms of forward wheels "are taken".
  • Adjustment of a pretightness of wheel bearings is broken.
  • Screw springs are broken or "have given".
  • Ослабли wheel nuts.
  • The geometry of a suspension bracket or steering drive is broken as a result of failure.


Takes place люфт wheels and the raised vibration of the car

  • Balancing of forward wheels (vibration is most considerably transferred through a steering wheel) is broken.
  • Balancing of back wheels (vibration is most considerably transferred through a car body) is broken.
  • Adjustment of a pretightness of wheel bearings is broken.
  • Components of racks of a suspension bracket are worn out.
  • Ослабли wheel nuts.
  • Tyres are pumped unequally up.
  • Wheel disks are damaged or deformed.
  • Tyres are damaged.
  • Components of a steering drive or suspension bracket, or their spherical hinges and-or резинометаллические plugs are worn out.
  • The spherical support () is worn out.


During fulfilment of turns and at braking there is "galloping" and-or car rocking

  • Ослабло fastening of the stabilizer of cross-section stability.
  • Shock-absorbers are faulty.
  • Screw springs / of a spring of a suspension bracket are broken or "have given".
  • Components of a steering drive or suspension bracket, or their spherical hinges and-or резинометаллические plugs are worn out.
  • The car is overloaded.


Roving or the general course instability of the car takes place

  • On one axis wheels of a various standard size are established, or their tyres are pumped up with various pressure.
  • Balancing of wheels is broken.
  • Tyres are pumped non-uniformly up.
  • Ослабли wheel nuts / bolts.
  • The lack of greasing of SHRUS and tips of steering draughts takes place.
  • Shock-absorbers are worn out.
  • Ослабло fastening of the stabilizer of cross-section stability.
  • Screw springs / of a spring are broken or "have given".
  • Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  • Components of a steering drive or suspension bracket, or their spherical hinges and-or резинометаллические plugs are worn out.


Excessively hardly the steering wheel turns

  • Level of a liquid of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel has fallen.
  • Tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  • The lack of greasing of spherical support and tips of steering draughts takes place.
  • Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  • Adjustment of the steering mechanism is broken, or greasing level has fallen.
  • Adjustment of a pretightness of wheel bearings is broken.
  • Components of the steering mechanism are worn out or damaged.
  • To rotation of a steering shaft stirs подрулевой the switch.
  • Tyres are too poorly beefy.
  • Spherical support are worn out or damaged.
  • Components of a steering drive are worn out or damaged.
  • The previous subsection see also.


It is excessive люфт a steering wheel

  • Ослабли wheel bearings.
  • Plugs of components of a suspension bracket are worn out.
  • Adjustment of the steering mechanism is broken.
  • Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  • Ослаб fixture of assemblage of the steering mechanism.
  • Components of a steering drive or suspension bracket are worn out.


There is no hydraulic strengthening

  • The belt of a drive of the steering pump is damaged, or adjustment of its tension is broken.
  • Level of a hydraulic liquid has fallen.
  • Passableness of hoses of system of strengthening of a wheel is broken.
  • Air has got to a hydraulic path of system of strengthening of a wheel.
  • The steering pump is faulty.
  • The steering mechanism is faulty.


Serviceability of return of a steering wheel in rectilinear position is broken

  • Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  • Tyres are too poorly beefy.
  • Components of the steering mechanism are worn out.
  • Adjustment of a steering column is broken.
  • Spherical support are worn out or damaged.
  • Components of a steering drive are worn out or damaged.
  • There was a loss of greasing of components of a steering drive.
  • Greasing level in картере the steering mechanism has fallen.
  • The steering column is jammed.


The steering wheel rotates every which way with various resistance

  • Leaks in картере the steering mechanism take place.
  • Passableness of hydraulic lines of system of strengthening of a wheel is broken.


The steering pump works with the raised noise

  • The lack of oil of the pump takes place.
  • Passableness of hoses, or the oil filter of the steering pump is broken.
  • The fixture приводного a pulley is weakened.
  • Adjustment of effort of a tension of a belt of a drive of the steering pump is broken.
  • The steering pump is faulty.


The extraneous noise which are starting with a forward part of the car take place

  • Tyres are pumped incorrectly up.
  • There was a loss of greasing of spherical support or components of a steering drive.
  • The fixture of the steering mechanism, components of a steering drive and suspension bracket is weakened.
  • Support of shock-absorbers are worn out.
  • Shock-absorbers are damaged.
  • Springs are damaged.
  • Ослабли nuts of fastening of wheels.
  • Are worn out or damaged шлицы back semiaxes.
  • It is excessive axial люфт the back bridge.


During braking controllability of the car worsens

  • Are worn out ступичные bearings of forward wheels.
  • Screw springs of a suspension bracket are broken or "have given".
  • Deformation of brake disks / of drums takes place.


The car has excessively given

  • Overload.
  • Shock-absorbers of rack-mount assemblages are worn out.
  • Screw springs of a suspension bracket are broken or "have given".


The gnash or other extraneous noise published by the steering mechanism takes place

  • Ослаб fixture of assemblage of the steering mechanism.
  • Internal damage of the steering mechanism takes place.


Excessive deterioration of tyres takes place


The raised deterioration of an internal or external part of a protector

  • Tyres (deterioration of both edges) are pumped insufficiently up.
  • Adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels is broken.
  • Components of a steering drive or suspension bracket, or their spherical hinges and-or резинометаллические plugs are worn out.
  • Speed on turns does not decrease.
  • Mechanical infringement of geometry of a suspension bracket as a result of failure takes place.


Scaly deterioration (обтрепывание) a protector

  • Convergence installation is broken.


Deterioration of the central part of a protector

  • Tyres are pumped up too strongly.


Deterioration of internal and external edges of a protector

  • Tyres are insufficiently strongly beefy.
  • Shock-absorbers are worn out.


Non-uniform deterioration of a protector

  • Balancing of the tyre / of a wheel is broken.
  • Excessively lateral palpation of a disk or the tyre.
  • Shock-absorbers are worn out.
  • The tyre is damaged.
  • At movement on a dry firm road covering the all-wheel drive mode is not disconnected.

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1.5. Automobile химикалии, oils and greasings
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2. The maintenance instruction